Re: **Questions** on Ground Effect Vehicles

From: (JCBowman)
Organization: America Online, Inc. (1-800-827-6364)
Date:         Thu, 7 Mar 1996 15:27:39 GMT
References:   1
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>I am trying to read up on Ground Effect Vehicles and would appreciate
>it if someone can point to the relevant journals, papers, books or WWW
>URLs on this topic. Although the concept is sound, why isn't there any
>commercial application?  What are the costs involved in designing such
>a vehicle?  Similar to that of an aircraft?  How would FAA look upon
>the cerfication issue?

Actually, if you could get a ground effect fleet running, the cost per
seat mile or cost per ton mile would actually be cheaper than a non
ground effect plane.  The performance equations tell you that it would
be a slower trip, but that's why it's cheaper.  It's a power
relationship (currently supertankers are the most efficient in terms
of power required and power used).  You plot Transport Efficiency
(product of weight and speed divided by power to operate) vs speed.
For aircraft, Trans Eff is the Lift/Drag ratio in cruise.  If you plot
all forms of trans., you find a boundary beyond which nothing appears-
it slopes down from left to right.  This is the technology factor
line.  With time, it moves up and to the right.  As for the FAA look
up the FAR's.  They would have to follow all altitude restrictions,
but efficient ground effect flight can only occur over large expanses
of flat land (Russia has lots of this) or water.  It would most likely
be a seaplane, so look up the seaplane stuff in the FAR's- I did.
However, some of those flare craft don't fall under FAR's.  They can't
climb too high (maybe 10 feet) so they fall under Coast Guard

     My senior project a few years ago was a ground effect design
inspired by the Russian Ekranoplan.  I am posting these references for
anyone who is interested.  Some are not related to technical material
but rather are economic reasons for such vehicles.

"Technical and Economic Assessment of Span-Distributed
Loading Cargo Aircraft Concepts" Boeing Commercial
Airplane Company. Contract NAS1-13963 June 76

Committee on Productivity of Marine Terminals, Marine Board,
Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National
Research Council.  "Improving Productivity in US Marine
Container Terminals."  National Academy Press, Wash DC 1986

Keith-Lucas, D. "The Relative Effectiveness of Large Landplanes
and Flying Boats"  2nd International Aeronautical Conference. New 
York May 24-27 1949

Dane, A. "Wingships"  Pop Mech May 1992

Balow, F.A. et al "Design and Evaluation of a Midsize Wing-in-
Ground Effect Transport"  AIAA Aircraft Design, Systems, and
Operations Meeting AIAA Paper 93-3952 Aug 11-13 1993

Fink, M, Lastinger, J. Aerodynamic Characterisitics of Low-Aspect
Ratio Wing in Close proximity to the Ground"  NASA Tech Note

Reeves, J.M.  Ram Wings- a future?  Proceedings of the Ram Wing
and Ground Effect Craft Conference May 19, 1987

Staufenbiel, R.W. "On the design of stable ram wing vehicles"  
Proceedings of the Ram wing and Ground Effect Conf May 19, 1987

Gallington, R.W. "Power Augmentation of Ram wings"  Proceedings
of the Ram Wing and Ground Effect Conf May 19, 1987

Papadales, B.S. Jr.  An Evaluation of a 2D Power Augmented Wing in
Ground Effect Model Under Static and Dynamic Freestream Conditions
DTNSRCDC (David Taylor Naval Ship Research ...) ASED - 353 June 76

Ando, S. PARWIG performance prediction during acceleration from
water-borne to airborne.  Transactions of the Japan Society for
Aeronautical and Space Sciences Vol 34, Number 105 Jan 1991

Woodward, J.B. "Marine Gas Turbines" Wiley-Interscience 1975

Moore, J.W. et al "Conceptual Design Study of Power Augmented Ram
Wing-in-Ground Effect Aircraft"  AIAA Aircraft Systems and
Technology Conf Los Angeles AIAA paper 78-1466 Aug 21-23 1978

Saarlas, M. Steam and Gas Turbines for Marine Propulsion.
Naval Institute Press Annapolis 1978

Ando, S.  Critical Review of Design Philosophies for Recent 
Transport WIG Effect Vehicles.  Transactions of the Japan
Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences.  Volume 33, 
number 99 may 1990

Carson B.H.  Experimental Observations of the 2D, Power
Augmented RAM WING operated statically over water.  AIAA/
SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference AIAA paper
78-751 April 17-19 1978

Good Luck,
Jason (