Re: Aircraft Evacuation

Date:         04 Aug 97 21:28:53 
From:         ehahn@mitre.org (Edward Hahn)
Organization: The MITRE Corporation
References:   1 2 3 4
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In article <airliners.1997.1665@ohare.Chicago.COM>, amuir@twsu.campus.mci.net (Andrew Muir) wrote:
>>In article <airliners.1997.1546@ohare.Chicago.COM>, ehahn@mitre.org (Edward
>Hahn) wrote:
>
>>Perhaps someone could explain the exact methodology used in each of the three
>>cases:  (1) more pax than had been certificated,
>
>Doesn't happen.  The airplane manufacturer has to demonstrate evacuation of
>the maximum number of passengers to be certified for the type.  The
>manufacturer holds the type certificate, not the airline/owner.

> <snip about: more seats then demonstrated, but less than certificated, as this case is not valid>

>>, and (3) more pax than had been flown in service, but fewer than
>>certificated/demonstrated.
>
>Airline can do as it pleases as long as exits are not blocked and the aisles
>are not reduced beyond a certain width.

<snip>

Thanks for the explanation!

Considering the original scenario (reproduced below, assuming condition 1)
from above), does this mean that if the airline wanted to put more seats on
board than had ever been demonstrated, then it has to lobby the airframe
manufacturer (as type holder) to perform the evacuation demonstration, and
thus get (re)certified?

Also, where does FAR Part 121.291 (reproduced below) come into play?  Does
this only apply to older aircraft (per para. (a)(1))?  BTW, from reading this
paragraph, it seems to allow the airline to put more seats in than the type
holder certificated the airframe to, provided the airline does the
demonstration successfully.  (I assume that if they are successful, the
airline alone would hold the authority, and not the type holder, and it would
be issued by the airline's FSDO, but there is nothing explicit in 121.291(a).)

Finally, now assuming condtion 3) from above,  how about paragraph 121.291(b),
which pertains to partial demonstrations?  If read this correctly, the airline
is not required to do an evac under this scenario, as the aircraft is already
in service with the airline (assuming that (b)(2) and (b)(3) also do not
apply), which is in-line with your statements.

ed

(side comment - does this issue elucidate the complexity of the FARs
adequately?  :-)  )

>In article <airliners.1997.1525@ohare.Chicago.COM>, "P. Wezeman"
> <pwezeman@blue.weeg.uiowa.edu> wrote:
>>   Does the FAA require airlines to demonstrate evacuation of airliners
>>in every seating configuration that the airline uses? In other words, if
>>an airliner wanted to squeeze more seats into an airliner than anyone
>>had ever used before, would they have to demonstrate that the new
>>configuration would still meet standards for evacuation time with a
>>random half of the exits blocked, X% seniors, dummy infants and all
>>the other test requirements?

Part 121.291 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, each certificate
holder must conduct an actual demonstration of emergency
evacuation procedures in accordance with paragraph (a) of appendix D to this
part to show that each type and model of airplane with a
seating capacity of more than 44 passengers to be used in its passenger
carrying operations allows the evacuation of the full capacity,
including crewmembers, in 90 seconds or less.

(1) An actual demonstration need not be conducted if that airplane type and
model has been shown to be in compliance with this paragraph in
effect on or after October 24, 1967, or, if during type certification, with
section 25.803 of this chapter in effect on or after December 1, 1978.

(2) Any actual demonstration conducted after September 27, 1993, must be in
accordance with paragraph (a) of Appendix D to this part in
effect on or after that date or with section 25.803 in effect on or after that
date.

{New-95-12 Revised Dec. 20, 1995, effective Jan. 19, 1996}

(b) Each certificate holder conducting operations with airplanes with a
seating capacity of more than 44 passengers must conduct a partial
demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures in accordance with paragraph
(c) of this section upon:

(1) Initial introduction of a type and model of airplane into
passengercarrying operation, if the certificate holder has not conducted an
actual demonstration under paragraph (a) of this section;

(2) Changing the number, location, or emergency evacuation duties or
procedures of flight attendants who are required by section 121.391; or

(3) Changing the number, location, type of emergency exits, or type of opening
mechanism on emergency exits available for evacuation.

{New-95-12 Revised Dec. 20, 1995, effective Jan. 19, 1996}

(c) In conducting the partial demonstration required by paragraph (b) of this
section, each certificate holder must:

(1) Demonstrate the effectiveness of its crewmember emergency training and
evacuation procedures by conducting a demonstration, not
requiring passengers and observed by the Administrator, in which the flight
attendants for that type and model of airplane, using that
operator's line operating procedures, open 50 percent of the required
floor-level emergency exits and 50 percent of the required non floor-level
emergency exits whose opening by a flight attendant is defined as an emergency
evacuation duty under section 121.397, and deploy 50
percent of the exit-slides. The exits and slides will be selected by the
administrator and must be ready for use within 15 seconds;

{New-95-12 Revised Dec. 20, 1995, effective Jan. 19, 1996}

(2) Apply for and obtain approval from the certificate-holding district office
before conducting the demonstration;

(3) Use flight attendants in this demonstration who have been selected at
random by the Administrator, have completed the certificate
holder`s FAA-approved training program for the type and model of airplane, and
have passed a written or practical examination on the
emergency equipment and procedures; and

{New-95-12 Revised Dec. 20, 1995, effective Jan. 19, 1996}

(4) Apply for and obtain approval from the certificate-holding district office
before commencing operations with this type and model
airplane.

{New-95-12 Revised Dec. 20, 1995, effective Jan. 19, 1996. Added last
sentence.}

(d) Each certificate holder operating or proposing to operate one or more
landplanes in extended overwater operations, or otherwise required
to have certain equipment under section 121.339, must show, by simulated
ditching conducted in accordance with paragraph (b) of Appendix
D to this part, that it has the ability to efficiently carry out its ditching
procedures. For certificate holders subject to Sec. 121.2(a)(1), this
paragraph applies only when a new type or model airplane is introduced into
the certificate holder's operations after January 19, 1996.

(e) For a type and model airplane for which the simulated ditching specified
in paragraph (d) has been conducted by a Part 121 certificate
holder, the requirements of paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(4), and (b)(5) of Appendix
D to this part are complied with if each life raft is removed from
stowage, one life raft is launched and inflated (or one slide life raft is
inflated) and crewmembers assigned to the inflated life raft display and
describe the use of each item of required emergency equipment. The life raft
or slide life raft to be inflated will be selected by the
Administrator.

[Doc. No. 21269, 46 FR 61453, Dec. 17, 1981; Amdt. 121-233, 58 FR 45230, Aug.
26, 1993; Amdt. 121-251, 60 FR 65929, Dec. 20, 1995]

>>>>  Ed Hahn    |    ehahn@mitre.org    |    (703) 883-5988  <<<<
The above statement is the opinion of the author.  No endorsement
or warranty by the MITRE Corporation is expressed or implied.
Really, I wouldn't kid you about a thing like this.