Re: KAL shot down by USSR in 1978 (_not_ KAL 007)

Date:         28 Dec 96 14:20:09 
From:         Mark Anderson <>
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 That KAL 747 was equiped with triplemix INS. INS systems determine
their own true heading and therefore do not depend on an external
heading input. There is no function to input grid navigational inputs
into INS. Heading indications to the Horizontal Situation Indicators are
also taken off the INS systems. Grid nav functionality is required with
electronic nav systems that depend on mag course as a primary means of
navigation. North of lat. 70N, navigational unreliability is compounded
with magnetic unreliability and accelerated changes in true or mag

The final report regarding this accident was the entry of the route from
the flight plan. With triplemix INS's installed, one of the pilots keyed
in the incorrect route into one system and then crossed filled the bogus
route into the other two systems. The pilots didn't use procedures that
we use today which includes cross checking the flight plan to the
installed routes and to cross reference raw data with the flight plan to
determind electronic navigation performance. Purhaps we all learned a
lesson with 007.

Unlike the Air Force of today, the commercial airlines gave up on
navigators in the late 60's with the installation of electronic