From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Robert Dorsett) Date: 17 Feb 93 14:09:36 PST
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In a recent post, I commented that 9.5 hours wasn't necessarily "long" when it came to determining whether to use a relief pilot for ETOPS. I was wrong: my basis for recollection was out of date, I was thinking of three-crew operations, and my handy online copy of Part 121 had been corrupted by subsection 400, and I wasn't interested enough to look up the specifics on paper. Dick Zeitlin noted on rec.aviation that the rules were more restrictive than I indicated, so I verified 'em: he's right. I stand by my other assertion, though, that the regs are rather regressive, permitting "grand slam" scheduling practices. So, in penance, following's the actual relevant text, from a copy of the regs only five years old. :-) Note the use of "flag carrier." This is defined as an airline flying an international route, in accordance with a bilateral agreement negotiated at the ministerial level. If there's enough interest, I'll type in the passages dealing with domestic operations. FAR 121.480: Applicability This subpart prescribes flight time limitations for flag air carriers. FAR 121.481. Flight time limitations: one or two pilot crews. (a) A flag air carrier may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane that has a crew of one or two pilots for eight hours or less during any 24 consecurtive hours without a rest period during these eight hours. (b) If a flag air carrier schedules a pilot to fly more than eight hours during any 24 consecutive hours, it shall give him an intervening rest period, at or before the end of eight scheduled hours of flight duty. This rest period must be at least twice the number of hours flown since the preceding rest period, but not less than eight hours. The air carrier shall relieve that pilot of all duty with it during that rest period. (c) Each pilot who has flown more than eight hours during 24 consecutive hours must be given at least 18 hours of rest before being assigned to any duty with the air carrier. (d) No pilot may fly more than 32 hours during any seven consecutive days, and each pilot must be relieved from all duty for at least 24 consecutive hours at least once during any seven consecutive days. (e) No pilot may fly as a member of a crew more than 100 hours during any one calendar month. (f) No pilot may fly as a member of a crew more than 1000 hours during any 12-calendar-month period. FAR 121.483. Flight time limitations: two pilots and one additional flight crewmember. (a) No flag air carrier may schedule a pilot to fly, in an airplane that has a crew of two pilots and at least one additional flight crewmember, for a total of more than 12 hours during any 24 consecutive hours. (b) If a pilot has flown 20 or more hours during any 48 consecutive hours or 24 or more hours during any 72 consecutive hours, he must be given at least 18 hours of rest before being assigned to any duty with the air carrier. In any case, he must be given at least 24 consecutive hours of rest during any seven consecutive days. (c) No pilot may fly as a flight crewmember more than-- (1) 120 hours during any 30 consecutive days; (2) 300 hours during any 90 consecutive days; or (3) 1000 hours during any 12-calendar-month period. FAR 121.509. Flight time limitations: three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember. (a) Each flag air carrier shall schedule its flight hours to provide adequate rest periods on the ground for each pilot who is away from his base and who is a pilot on an airplane that has a crew of three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember. It shall also provide adequate sleeping quarters on the airplane whenever a pilot is scheduled to fly more than 12 hours during any 24 consecutive hours. (b) The flag air carrier shall give each pilot, upon return to his base from any flight or series of flights, a rest period that is at least twice the total number of hours he flew since the last period at his base. During the rest period required by this paragraph, the air carrier may not require him to perform any duty for it. If the required rest period is more than seven days, that part of the rest period in excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on any route. (c) No pilot may fly as a flight cremwembver more than (1) 350 hours during any consecutive days; or (2) 1000 hours during any 12-calendar-month period. FAR 121.487 [...] FAR 121.489. Flight time limitations: other commercial flying. No pilot that is employed as a pilot by a flag carrier may do any other commercial flying if that commercial flying plus his flying in air transportation will exceed any flight time limitation in this part. FAR 121.491. Flight time limitations: deadhead transportation. Time spent in deadhead transportation to or from duty assignment is not considered to be part of a rest period [not duty time, either...--rdd] FAR 121.493. Flight time limitations: flight engineers and flight navigators. (a) In any operation in which one flight engineer or flight navigator is required, the flight time limitations in 121.483 apply to that flight engineer or flight navigator. (b) In any operatin in which more than one flight engineer or flight navigator is required, the flight time limitations in 121.485 apply to those flight engineers or flight navigators.