Duty time revisited

From:         rdd@cactus.org (Robert Dorsett)
Date:         17 Feb 93 14:09:36 PST
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In a recent post, I commented that 9.5 hours wasn't necessarily "long"
when it came to determining whether to use a relief pilot for ETOPS.  I 
was wrong: my basis for recollection was out of date, I was thinking of 
three-crew operations, and my handy online copy of Part 121 had been 
corrupted by subsection 400, and I wasn't interested enough to look up 
the specifics on paper.  Dick Zeitlin noted on rec.aviation that the rules
were more restrictive than I indicated, so I verified 'em: he's right.  
I stand by my other assertion, though, that the regs are rather regressive, 
permitting "grand slam" scheduling practices.

So, in penance, following's the actual relevant text, from a copy of
the regs only five years old.  :-)  Note the use of "flag carrier."
This is defined as an  airline flying an international route, in 
accordance with a bilateral agreement negotiated at the ministerial 
level.  If there's enough interest, I'll type in the passages dealing 
with domestic operations.


FAR 121.480: Applicability

This subpart prescribes flight time limitations for flag air
carriers.


FAR 121.481.  Flight time limitations: one or two pilot crews.

(a) A flag air carrier may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane
that has a crew of one or two pilots for eight hours or less during
any 24 consecurtive hours without a rest period during these eight
hours.

(b) If a flag air carrier schedules a pilot to fly more than eight
hours during any 24 consecutive hours, it shall give him an
intervening rest period, at or before the end of eight scheduled
hours of flight duty.  This rest period must be at least twice the
number of hours flown since the preceding rest period, but not less
than eight hours.  The air carrier shall relieve that pilot of all
duty with it during that rest period.

(c) Each pilot who has flown more than eight hours during 24
consecutive hours must be given at least 18 hours of rest before
being assigned to any duty with the air carrier.

(d) No pilot may fly more than 32 hours during any seven consecutive
days, and each pilot must be relieved from all duty for at least 24
consecutive hours at least once during any seven consecutive days.

(e) No pilot may fly as a member of a crew more than 100 hours during
any one calendar month.

(f) No pilot may fly as a member of a crew more than 1000 hours
during any 12-calendar-month period.


FAR 121.483.  Flight time limitations: two pilots and one additional
flight crewmember.

(a) No flag air carrier may schedule a pilot to fly, in an airplane
that has a crew of two pilots and at least one additional flight
crewmember, for a total of more than 12 hours during any 24
consecutive hours.

(b) If a pilot has flown 20 or more hours during any 48 consecutive
hours or 24 or more hours during any 72 consecutive hours, he must be
given at least 18 hours of rest before being assigned to any duty
with the air carrier.  In any case, he must be given at least 24
consecutive hours of rest during any seven consecutive days.

(c) No pilot may fly as a flight crewmember more than--

(1) 120 hours during any 30 consecutive days;

(2) 300 hours during any 90 consecutive days; or

(3) 1000 hours during any 12-calendar-month period.


FAR 121.509.  Flight time limitations: three or more pilots and an
additional flight crewmember.

(a) Each flag air carrier shall schedule its flight hours to provide
adequate rest periods on the ground for each pilot who is away from
his base and who is a pilot on an airplane that has a crew of three
or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.  It shall also
provide adequate sleeping quarters on the airplane whenever a pilot
is scheduled to fly more than 12 hours during any 24 consecutive
hours.

(b) The flag air carrier shall give each pilot, upon return to his
base from any flight or series of flights, a rest period that is at
least twice the total number of hours he flew since the last period
at his base.  During the rest period required by this paragraph, the
air carrier may not require him to perform any duty for it.  If the
required rest period is more than seven days, that part of the rest
period in excess of seven days may be given at any time before the
pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on any route.

(c) No pilot may fly as a flight cremwembver more than

(1) 350 hours during any consecutive days; or

(2) 1000 hours during any 12-calendar-month period.


FAR 121.487 [...]


FAR 121.489.  Flight time limitations: other commercial flying.

No pilot that is employed as a pilot by a flag carrier may do any
other commercial flying if that commercial flying plus his flying in
air transportation will exceed any flight time limitation in this
part.


FAR 121.491.  Flight time limitations: deadhead transportation.

Time spent in deadhead transportation to or from duty assignment is
not considered to be part of a rest period [not duty time,
either...--rdd]


FAR 121.493.  Flight time limitations: flight engineers and flight
navigators.  

(a) In any operation in which one flight engineer or flight navigator
is required, the flight time limitations in 121.483 apply to that
flight engineer or flight navigator.

(b) In any operatin in which more than one flight engineer or flight
navigator is required, the flight time limitations in 121.485 apply
to those flight engineers or flight navigators.